Topic 20 Amines, Amino Acids and Proteins

20 Amines, Amino Acids and Proteins

20.1 Amines

Candidates should be able to:

(a) write the general formula for amines;

(b) name amines according to the IUPAC nomenclature and their common names;

(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in amines;

(d) state the physical properties of amines;

(e) classify amines into primary, secondary and tertiary amines;

(f) explain the relative basicity of ammonia, ethanamine and phenylamine (aniline) in terms of their structures;

(g) describe the preparation of ethanamine by the reduction of nitriles, and phenylamine by the reduction of nitrobenzene;

(h) explain the formation of salts when amines react with mineral acids;

(i) differentiate primary aliphatic amines from primary aryl (aromatic) amines by their respective reactions with nitric(III) acid (nitrous acid) and bromine water;

(j) explain the formation of dyes by the coupling reaction of the diazonium salt as exemplified by the reaction of benzenediazonium chloride with phenol.

20.2 Amino acids

Candidates should be able to:

(a) write the structure and general formula for -amino acids;

(b) name -amino acids according to the IUPAC nomenclature and their common names;

(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in amino acids;

(d) state the physical properties of -amino acids;

(e) describe the acid and base properties of -amino acids;

(f) describe the formation of zwitterions;

(g) explain the peptide linkage as amide linkage formed by the condensation between two or more -amino acids as exemplified by glycylalanine and alanilglycine.

20.3 Protein

Candidates should be able to:

(a) identify the peptide linkage in the primary structure of protein;

(b) describe the hydrolysis of proteins;

(c) state the biological importance of proteins.

 

20 Amines, Amino Acids and Proteins

20.1 Amines

Candidates should be able to:

(a) write the general formula for amines;

(b) name amines according to the IUPAC nomenclature and their common names;

(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in amines;

(d) state the physical properties of amines;

(e) classify amines into primary, secondary and tertiary amines;

(f) explain the relative basicity of ammonia, ethanamine and phenylamine (aniline) in terms of their structures;

(g) describe the preparation of ethanamine by the reduction of nitriles, and phenylamine by the reduction of nitrobenzene;

(h) explain the formation of salts when amines react with mineral acids;

(i) differentiate primary aliphatic amines from primary aryl (aromatic) amines by their respective reactions with nitric(III) acid (nitrous acid) and bromine water;

(j) explain the formation of dyes by the coupling reaction of the diazonium salt as exemplified by the reaction of benzenediazonium chloride with phenol.

20.2 Amino acids

Candidates should be able to:

(a) write the structure and general formula for -amino acids;

(b) name -amino acids according to the IUPAC nomenclature and their common names;

(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in amino acids;

(d) state the physical properties of -amino acids;

(e) describe the acid and base properties of -amino acids;

(f) describe the formation of zwitterions;

(g) explain the peptide linkage as amide linkage formed by the condensation between two or more -amino acids as exemplified by glycylalanine and alanilglycine.

20.3 Protein

Candidates should be able to:

(a) identify the peptide linkage in the primary structure of protein;

(b) describe the hydrolysis of proteins;

(c) state the biological importance of proteins.

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