Topic 19 Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives

19 Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives

19.1 Carboxylic acid

Candidates should be able to:

(a) write the general formula for aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids;

(b) name carboxylic acids according to the IUPAC nomenclature and their common names for C1 to C6;

(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in carboxylic acids;

(d) state the physical properties of carboxylic acids;

(e) write the equations for the formation of carboxylic acids from alcohols, aldehydes and nitriles;

(f) describe the acidic properties of carboxylic acids as exemplified by their reactions with metals and bases to form salts;

(g) explain the substitution of the OH in carboxylic acids by the nucleophiles OR and C1 to form esters and acyl chlorides respectively;

(h) describe the reduction of carboxylic acids to primary alcohols;

(i) describe the oxidation and dehydration of methanoic and ethanedioic acids (oxalic acid);

(j) state the uses of carboxylic acids in food, perfume, health (aspirin) and polymer industries.

19.2 Acyl chlorides

Candidates should be able to:

(a) write the general formula for acyl chlorides;

(b) name acyl chlorides according to the IUPAC nomenclature;

(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in acyl chlorides;

(d) state the physical properties of acyl chlorides;

(e) explain the ease of hydrolysis of acyl chlorides compared to chloroalkanes;

(f) describe the reactions of acyl chlorides with alcohols, phenols and primary amines.

19.3 Esters

Candidates should be able to:

(a) write the general formula for esters;

(b) name esters according to the IUPAC nomenclature;

(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in esters;

(d) state the physical properties of esters;

(e) describe the preparation of esters by the reactions of acyl chlorides with alcohols and phenols;

(f) describe the acid and base hydrolysis of esters;

(g) describe the reduction of esters to primary alcohols;

(h) state the uses of esters as flavourings, preservatives and solvents.

19.4 Amides

Candidates should be able to:

(a) write the general formula for amides;

(b) name amides according to the IUPAC nomenclature;

(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in amides;

(d) state the physical properties of amides;

(e) describe the preparation of amides by the reaction of acyl chlorides with primary amines;

(f) describe the acid and base hydrolysis of amides.

 

 

19 Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives

19.1 Carboxylic acid

Candidates should be able to:

(a) write the general formula for aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids;

(b) name carboxylic acids according to the IUPAC nomenclature and their common names for C1 to C6;

(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in carboxylic acids;

(d) state the physical properties of carboxylic acids;

(e) write the equations for the formation of carboxylic acids from alcohols, aldehydes and nitriles;

(f) describe the acidic properties of carboxylic acids as exemplified by their reactions with metals and bases to form salts;

(g) explain the substitution of the OH in carboxylic acids by the nucleophiles OR and C1 to form esters and acyl chlorides respectively;

(h) describe the reduction of carboxylic acids to primary alcohols;

(i) describe the oxidation and dehydration of methanoic and ethanedioic acids (oxalic acid);

(j) state the uses of carboxylic acids in food, perfume, health (aspirin) and polymer industries.

19.2 Acyl chlorides

Candidates should be able to:

(a) write the general formula for acyl chlorides;

(b) name acyl chlorides according to the IUPAC nomenclature;

(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in acyl chlorides;

(d) state the physical properties of acyl chlorides;

(e) explain the ease of hydrolysis of acyl chlorides compared to chloroalkanes;

(f) describe the reactions of acyl chlorides with alcohols, phenols and primary amines.

19.3 Esters

Candidates should be able to:

(a) write the general formula for esters;

(b) name esters according to the IUPAC nomenclature;

(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in esters;

(d) state the physical properties of esters;

(e) describe the preparation of esters by the reactions of acyl chlorides with alcohols and phenols;

(f) describe the acid and base hydrolysis of esters;

(g) describe the reduction of esters to primary alcohols;

(h) state the uses of esters as flavourings, preservatives and solvents.

19.4 Amides

Candidates should be able to:

(a) write the general formula for amides;

(b) name amides according to the IUPAC nomenclature;

(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in amides;

(d) state the physical properties of amides;

(e) describe the preparation of amides by the reaction of acyl chlorides with primary amines;

(f) describe the acid and base hydrolysis of amides.

 

19 Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives

19.1 Carboxylic acid

 

Candidates should be able to: 
(a) write the general formula for aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids; 

 

 

 


(b) name carboxylic acids according to the IUPAC nomenclature and their common names for C1 to C6

 

 

(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in carboxylic acids; 

 


(d) state the physical properties of carboxylic acids; 

 

 

 


(e) write the equations for the formation of carboxylic acids from alcohols, aldehydes and nitriles; (& ketone with prolong boiling)

 

 

Oxidation of ketones
 

 

 

 

 

(f) describe the acidic properties of carboxylic acids as exemplified by their reactions with metals and bases to form salts; 

(g) explain the substitution of the OH in carboxylic acids by the nucleophiles OR and Cl to form esters and acyl chlorides respectively; 


(h) describe the reduction of carboxylic acids to primary alcohols; 

(i) describe the oxidation and dehydration of methanoic and ethanedioic acids (oxalic acid); 


(j) state the uses of carboxylic acids in food, perfume and polymer industries.

aspirin


19.2 Acyl chlorides

Candidates should be able to: 
(a) write the general formula for acyl chlorides; 

(b) name acyl chlorides according to the IUPAC nomenclature; 

(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in acyl chlorides; 

(d) state the physical properties of acyl chlorides; 

(e) explain the ease of hydrolysis of acyl chlorides compared to chloroalkanes; 

(f) describe the reactions of acyl chlorides with alcohols, phenols and primary amines.

19.3 Esters

Candidates should be able to: 
(a) write the general formula for esters; 


(b) name esters according to the IUPAC nomenclature; 

(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in esters; 

(d) state the physical properties of esters;

 


(e) describe the preparation of esters by the reactions of acyl chlorides with alcohols and phenols; 

 

 

 


(f) describe the acid and base hydrolysis of esters; 

(g) describe the reduction of esters to primary alcohols; 

(h) state the uses of esters as flavourings, preservatives and solvents.

 

 

 

 

 

 


19.4 Amides

Candidates should be able to: 
(a) write the general formula for amides; 

(b) name amides according to the IUPAC nomenclature; 

(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in amides; 

(d) state the physical properties of amides; 

(e) describe the preparation of amides by the reaction of acyl chlorides with primary amines; 

(f) describe the acid and base hydrolysis of amides.


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