STEM In Chemistry

STEM IN CHEMICAL ENERGETICS

FILE FOR DOWNLOAD USE AS ACTIVITY IN CLASS

Endothermic and Exothermic Process

EXOTHERMIC

Neutralisation of strong acid by strong alkali HCl + NaOH,

Dissolve NaOH in water,

reaction between zinc and copper sulphate,

burning coal for cooking,

or keep house warm,

burning of petroleum,

burning of sulphur,

 

 

burning methane,

burning magnesium ribbon,

neutralisation,

 

 

 

chemical neutralisation

 

Hydraulic and biotic impacts on neutralisation of high-pH waters

 

 

 

neutralisation of H2SO4 and HCl,

 

nitric acid and calcium hydroxide,

alkaline metals with water,

diluting concentrated sulphuric acid,

 

adding water to anhydrous copper (II) sulphate,

 

 

 

reaction between active metals and dilute acids,

 

adding water to oxides of very reactive metals,

 

 

 

reaction between acids and carbonate,

 

 

 

 

precipitation of silver chloride in the reaction of NaCl with AgNO3,

experiments of heat change,

 

 

 

 

 

heat of combustion H2 ethanol carbon methane methanol propanol butanol,

explosion of fireworks,

 

 

bomb atom,

 

 

haber process,

CH3COOH + NaOH,

consecutive alcohol heat of combustion,

ethanol in fuel gas issues

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

…………………………………………………….

Fuel and heat of combustion (kJ/mol)

Hydrogen 244
Carbon monoxide 283.24
Carbon 393.5
Sulphur 293.82
Ammonia 317.56-382.6
Formaldehyde 570.78
Hydrazine 622.0
Methanol 638.55-726.0
Methane 802.34-889
Acetylene 1,300.0
Ethanol 1,300.0
Ethane 1,437.2-1,560
Propanol 2,020.0
Propane 2,044.2
tert-Butanol 2,415.3
Isobutanol 2,442.9
n-Butanol 2,501.6
Butane 2,659.3
Isobutane 2,651.0
n-Pentanol 3,061.2
Isopentane 3,264.1
Benzene 3,270.0
Pentane 3,272.6
Propoxypropane 3,568.0
Cyclohexane 3,656.8
Hexane 3,856.7
Hexamine 4,200.0
Methylcyclohexane 4,259.5
Heptane 4,465.8
Butoxybutane 4,922.4
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 5,061.5
Octane 5,074.9
Nonane  5,683.3
Decane 6,294.5
2-Methylpentane 6,850.7
Undecane 6,908.0
Dodecane 7,519.6
………………………………………………………

Fuel Value, J kg-¹
fuel oil,
natural gas,
acetylene,
petrol,
paraffin,
coal,
coke,
alcohol,
coal gas,
dry wood,
lignite,
carbon monoxide,
hydrogen,

rusting process,

ENDOTHERMIC

fotosynthesis,

 

 

dissolving ammonium nitrate in water,

 

 

dissolving ammonium sulphate in water,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

cold and hot packs use in sport to release pain for injuries,

 

 

 

 

(cold packs: ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, sodium thiosulphate, potassium nitrate),

(hot packs: aluminium chloride, calcium oxide, anhydrous calcium chloride, anhydrous copper (II) sulphate),

dissociation of carbonate,

N2 + O2 –> 2NO,

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