Seminar Intensif Kimia STPM P1/ U1
1. Atoms, molecules and stoichiometry
Page 4 Question 1
Page 6 Question 1
2. Electronic structure of atoms
Page 8 Question 3
Page 10 Question 9
Page 12 Question 2
3. Chemical bonding: ionic bond, covalent bond and metallic bond
4. Chemical bonding: shapes of molecules and ions
Page 20 Question 2B
5. Chemical bonding: intermolecular forces
Sketch and differentiate phase diagram of Water and Carbon dioxide
Page 29 Question 4
Page 29 Question 5
Page 31 Question 2
Page 32 Question 1
Page 44 Question 4
6. States of matter: gas
Page 24 Question 1
Page 25 Question 5
Page 25 Question 6
Page 26 Question 1
7. States of matter: liquid and solids
8. Reactions kinetics
Page 34 Question 4
Page 35 Question 9
Page 35 Question 10
Page 36 Question 11
Page 36 Question 12
Page 36 Question 13
Page 41 Question 1
Page 42 Question 2
9. Equilibria: chemical equilibrium
Page 43 Question 2
Page 43 Question 3
Page 45 Question 7
Page 46 Question 1
Page 47 Question 2
10. Equilibria: ionic equilibrium
Page 51 Question 4
Page 51 Question 5
Page 19 Question 1B
Page 52 Question 9
Page 52 Question 11
Page 52 Question 12
Hint for exam
1. What is the product of reaction between ethane and chlorine in the presence of UV light?
2. Explain 3 steps of initiation, propagation and termination when methane react with Cl2?
3. Y undergo oxidation to produce RCOOH, Y have no reaction with sodium metal. What is Y?
4. What is reagent and condition of ROH –> C=C?
5. What is the product reaction of alkene when undergo oxidation?
6. Y + H2O with dilute H2SO4 will produce RCOOH. What is Y?
7. What is the reagent, condition and product when ester undergo hydrolysis?
8. What is the reagent condition of the reaction CH3CH2COOH –> CH3CHClCOOH?
9. C6H12 + Br2 –> brown decolourises.
What is the possible compound of C6H12?
10. C6H12 + Br2 –> brown decolourises.
What is the product when C6H12 react with hot, concentrated acid, KMnO4?
11. Give positive test of Tollen’s reagent?
12. Give positive test of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine?
13. What is the possible compound of C4H8 when react with HBr will give two possible product C4H9Br?
14. Y + NaOH (aq) –> ROH. What is Y?
15. Y + H+/KMnO4 –> no reaction What is Y?
4 States of Matter Gas, liquid & solid.
1. Gas X is collected in a 250cm³ volumetric flask at 25°C until the pressure of the gas is 73.5 kPa. The mass of X in the flask is 0.118 g at 25°. What is the mass of 1 mol of X?
2. At 273K, 22.4 dm³ gas X in a container has a pressure of 1.0 atm. When the volume of the container is decresed to ___? when the pressure of the gas becomes 1.8 atm.
3. What is the condition that favours ideal gas behaviour?
4. Derive an expression for the density of a gas, p from the ideal gas law?
5. A sample of gases contains an equal amount of ammonia, helium and nitrogen. Determine the density, in g dm`³, of this sample under atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 30°C.
Gas constant, R is 8.31 L.kPa K`¹mol`¹ and the atmospheric pressure, P is 1.01 x 10² kPa or 101 kPa.
6. A sample of oxygen gas has a volume of 1.2 x 10`³ dm³ at a temperature of 2.0°C and pressure of 2.4 atm. What is the volume and mass of the sample of gas under room condition?
7. Our body needs oxygen gas at a partial pressure of 0.20 atm. At a total pressure of 2.4 atm, calculate the percentage of oxygen gas required to maintain a partial pressure of 0.20 atm?
8. A fire extinguisher cylinder has an internal volume of 2.00 dm³ and contains 1.80 kg of carbon dioxide. Calculate the pressure of carbon dioxide gas in the cylinder at 25.0°C.
9. An aerosol can containing helium gas at 30°C and 1.8 x 10³ Pa is heated to 60°C. What is the pressure of helium in the can now?
10. Determine the density of SO2 gas at 25°C and 101kPa.
11. A 20.0 m³ steel tank was constructed to store liquified natural gas (LNG) which contained mainly methane at 160°C and 101 kPa. How many grams of methane can be stored in the container if the density of the liquid is 416 kg m–³?
5 Reaction Kinetics
1. State collision theory.
2. State the reaction equation between nitrogen monoxide and bromine.
3. State the rate equation of reaction equation between nitrogen monoxide and bromine.
4. What is rate constant?
5. Define the rate determining step?
6. Rate constant always increases with ………….?
7. Rate = k [NO]²[Br2], what is the new rate of reaction when the volume of the vessel increases two times?
8. Rate = k[NO]²[O2], what is the new rate of reaction when the concentrations of NO and O2 increases two times?
9. Draft the graph of first, second and zero order.
10. Define half-life and what is the half-life of first, second and zero order.
11. How to calculate the activation energy, Ea?
12. Explain the effects on the reaction rate and rate constant when the concentration of the reactants is change?
5. Reaction Kinetics
1. Explain the activation energy, Ea of exothermic & endothermic?
2. Explain activation energy, Ea vs catalyst?
3. Explain activation energy, Ea vs rate of reaction?
4. Explain the collision theory?
5. Which more stable (stability) product/ reactants when the ∆H is positive/ negative?
6. Explain frequency of collision vs [reactants] / [products]?
7. Explain the effective collision?
8. What depends on rate chemical reaction?
9. If the product have more energy than the reactants means that?
10. Explain Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curves?
11. Explain rate constant related to temperature?
12. What happens when the volume of vessel increases two times on the concentration of the reactants/ products when reaction occurs?
13. How to determine the rate law which related to multiple reaction?
1. Give test to distinguish Aldehyde, Ketone & Alcohol.
- Positive/ Negative test.
- Chemical equation.
a. iodoform test.
b. fehling solution/ benedict test.
c. tollens’ reagent.
d. lucas reagent.
2. Phenol vs benzoic acid react with bromine?
3. Explain carboxylic acid family’s oxidation reaction?
4. Explain test on alkene using bromine?
14. Introductions to organic chemistry
1. Cyclohexane react with chlorine in uv light will produces?
2. give an example of free radical substitution equation?
3. explain the three steps of free radical substitution reaction?
- what is the product of reaction oxidation alkene in room temperature?
- give chemical equation oxidation of alkene with epoxy?
- what is the rules of oxidation alkenes in hot condition with various combination species?
- cyclohexene undergoes oxidation with KMnO4 in hot alkaline condition, what would be the product?
- what is the condition & product of addition reaction bromine of alkenes?
- cyclohexene react with chlorine in dark and room temperature condition, what will be the product?
- what is the condition when haloalkanes reaction to prepare alkenes?
- what is the condition in preparation of alcohol from alkenes with reaction with H2SO4 and H3PO4 separately?
- what is the definition of Markovnikov rules?
- give example usage of Markovnikov rules in reaction hydrolysis of alkenes?
- give example usage of Markovnikov rules in reaction alkenes with dry HCl?
- what is the different between Saytzeff rule and Markovnikov rule?
15.3 Benzene Ring / Arenes
1. alkylation of benzene give example?
2. benzene react with Cl2 with presence of AlCl3 what will be the product?
3. give three examples of nucleophile molecules?
4. what will be the product when chloro benzene react with nucleophile?
5. what is the product from reaction between chlorobenzene and sodium hydroxide?
6. what will be the product when chloro benzene react with Cl2 with presence FeCl3.
7. chloro benzene can react with NaOH, what is the condition and the product?
15.4 Alkyl Benzene
1. oxidation of alkyl benzene to produce?
2. what is the product oxidation of alkyl benzene below:
3. what will be the product of alkyl benzene below when react with bromine water in presence of UV light?
b. ethyl benzene
4. toluene react with chlorine in the presence of UV light, what will be the product?
5. toluene react with chlorine in the presence of AlCl3, what will be the product?
6. ethyl benzene react with concentrated nitric acid in acidic, what will be the product?
7. toluene undergoes oxidation reaction to produce?
8. oxidation of (1,1-dimethylethyl)benzene will produce?
9. what is the reasons why is it tert-butylbenzene does not react with KMnO4/H+ ?
10. what will be the product when 1-chloro-1-phenylmethane react with chlorine with presence of FeCl3?
11. what will be the product when chlorobutane react with chlorine in the presence of FeCl3?
12. 1-chloro-1-phenylmethane undergoes oxidation will give what product?
RX = haloalkanes
1. how to prepare alkene from RX?
2. what is saytzeff’s rule?
3. saytzeff’s rule used in what chemical reaction?
4. how to prepare alcohol from RX? without ethanol?
5. how to prepare amine from RX?
6. how to prepare alcohol from RX with presence of ethanol?
7. how to prepare nitrile from RX?
8. how to prepare carboxylic acid from nitrile?
9. hydrolysis of haloalkanes chemical reaction equation?
10. RX (dichloro attach at same carbon) undergoes hydrolysis of water (OH-/H2O) will produces?
11. RX (dichloro attach at different carbon) undergoes hydrolysis of water (OH-/H2O) will produces?
12. explains SN1 and SN2?
13. ClCH2CH2(C6H4)Cl + NaOH –> ??
14. C6H5Cl + NaOH –> ?
15. in what condition C6H5Cl can react with NaOH?
16. C6H5CH2Cl + [O] –> ?
17. C6H5CH2Cl + NaOH –> ?
18. RX (No phenyl) + [O] –> ?
19. RX + NaOH –> ?
20. C6H5CH2Cl + KCN/NaCN/CN- –> ?
21. RX +Mg –> ? what is the condition and its product?
22. Grignard reagent (organomagnesium compounds) react with:
23. How to produce 3° alcohol from grignard reagent?
17. Hydroxy Compounds
1. what is the type of alcohol and the condition that react with concentrated sulphuric acid to produce alkene?
2. what is the condition when alkene used to produce alcohol?
3. oxidation of alcohol will produce?
4. what is the condition to produce haloalkane from alcohol?
5. what is the function of iodoform test?
6. how to differentiate between phenol and benzoic acid?
7. what is the product of fermentation of sugar and give its chemical equation?
8. what happens when Na2CO3 mixed with phenol / benzoic acid?
9. how to produce ester from alcohol using acyl chloride?
10. what happens when alcohol is heat with Cu?
18. Carbonyl compounds
19. Carboxylic acid
1. How to produce acyl chloride from carboxylic acid?
2. Oxidation of RCOOH?
3. RCOOH / Phenol dissolve in NaCO3?
4. How to produce ester from RCOOH? Give examppe.
5. RCOOH + Phenol?
6. Benzoic acid + Br2?
20. Amines, amino acids and proteins