Keyword for stpm chemistry.
1 Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry
1.1 Fundamental particles of an atom.
protons, neutrons, electrons, charges, masses, behaviour of beams of protons, neutrons and electrons, electric and magnetic fields, distribution of mass and charges within an atom, number of protons, neutrons and electrons, neutral and charged species, proton number and nucleon number, isotopes, stable and unstable isotopes.
1.2 Relative atomic, isotopic, molecular and formula masses.
Relative atomic, isotopic, molecular and formula masses, relative atomic mass, Ar, relative isotopic mass, relative molecular mass, Mr, and relative formula mass, mass spectra, relative abundance of isotopes and molecular fragments, calculate relative atomic mass of an element.
1.3 The mole and the Avogadro constant.
mole, Avogadro constant, calculate the number of moles of reactants, volumes of gases, volumes of solutions and concentrations of solutions, stoichiometric.
2 Electronic Structures of Atoms
2.1 Electronic energy levels of atomic hydrogen.
formation of the emission line spectrum of atomic hydrogen in the Lyman and Balmer series using Bohr’s Atomic Model
2.2 Atomic orbitals: s, p and d.
the number and relative energies of the s, p and d orbitals for the principal quantum numbers 1, 2 and 3, including the 4s orbitals, shape of the s and p orbitals.
2.3 Electronic configuration.
electronic configuration of atoms and ions, given the proton number (and charge), Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule and Pauli Exclusion Principle
2.4 Classification of elements into s, p, d and f blocks in the Periodic Table.
position of the elements in the Periodic Table, block s, with valence shell configurations s1 and s2, block p, valence shell configurations from s2p1 to s2p6, block d, with valence shell configurations from d1s2 to d10s2, position of elements in block f of the Periodic Table.
3 Chemical Bonding
3.1 Ionic bonding.
ionic (electrovalent) bonding, NaCl, MgCl2, ionic compounds, KF, BaO, Na2O, MgBr2, MgCl2, Al2O3, BaCl2, CaO
3.2 Covalent bonding
draw the Lewis structure of covalent molecules, octet rule, NH3, CCl4, H2O, CO2, N2O4, exception to the octet rule, BF3, NO, NO2, PCl5, SF6, draw the Lewis structure of ions, SO42-, CO32-, NO3- and CN-, overlapping and hybridisation of the s and p orbitals, BeCl2, BF3, CH4, N2, HCN, NH3 and H2O molecules, shapes of and bond angles in molecules and ions using the principle of valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR theory), linear, trigonal planar, tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramid, octahedral, V-shaped, T-shaped, seesaw and pyramidal, polar and non-polar bonds, CCl, CN, CO, CMg, resulting in polar or/ and non-polar molecules, bond lengths and bond strengths with respect to single, double and triple bonds, inertness of nitrogen molecule, strong triple bond, non-polarity, properties ionic and covalent bonding in terms of bond strength, melting point and electrical conductivity, covalent character in ionic compounds such as Al2O3, AlI3 and LiI, coordinate (dative covalent) bonding as exemplified by H3O+, NH4+, Al2Cl6 and [Fe(CN)6]3.
3.3 Metallic bonding
metallic bonding in terms of electron sea model.
3.4 Intermolecular forces: van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding
hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces (permanent, temporary and induced dipole), effect of van der Waals forces between molecules on the physical properties of substances, the effect of hydrogen bonding (intermolecular and intramolecular) on the physical properties of substances.
4 States of Matter
4.4 Phase diagrams
5 Reaction Kinetics
5.1 Rate of reaction
5.2 Rate law
5.3 The effect of temperature on reaction kinetics
5.4 The role of catalysts in reactions
5.5 Order of reactions and rate constants
6.1 Chemical equilibria
6.2 Ionic equilibria
6.3 Solubility equilibria
6.4 Phase equilibria
7 Chemical Energetics
7.1 Enthalpy changes of reaction, dH
7.2 Hess’ law
7.3 Born-Haber cycle
7.4 The solubility of solids in liquids
8.1 Half-cell and redox equations
8.2 Standard electrode potential
8.3 Non-standard cell potentials
8.4 Fuel cells
8.6 Applications of electrochemistry
9 Periodic Table: Periodicity
9.1 Physical properties of elements of Period 2 and Period 3
9.2 Reactions of Period 3 elements with oxygen and water
9.3 Acidic and basic properties of oxides and hydrolysis of oxides
10 Group 2
10.1 Selected Group 2 elements and their compounds
10.2 Anomalous behaviour of beryllium
10.3 Uses of Group 2 compounds
11 Group 14
11.1 Physical properties of Group 14 elements
11.2 Tetrachlorides and oxides of Group 14 elements
11.3 Relative stability of +2 and +4 oxidation states of Group 14 elements
11.4 Silicon, silicone and silicates
11.5 Tin alloys
12 Group 17
12.1 Physical properties of selected Group 17 elements
12.2 Reactions of selected Group 17 elements
12.3 Reactions of selected halide ions
12.4 Industrial applications of halogens and their compounds
13 Transition Elements
13.1 Physical properties of first row transition elements
13.2 Chemical properties of first row transition elements
13.3 Nomenclature and bonding of complexes
13.4 Uses of first row transition elements and their compounds.
14 Introductions to Organic Chemistry
14.1 Bonding of the carbon atoms: the shapes of ethane, ethene, ethyne and benzene molecules
14.2 General, empirical, molecular and structural formulae of organic compounds
14.3 Functional groups: classification and nomenclature
14.4 Isomerism: structural and stereoisomerism
14.5 Free radicals, nucleophiles and electrophiles
14.6 Molecular structure and its effect on physical properties
14.7 Inductive and resonance effect
15.1 Can understand and describe the alkanes
15.2 Can understand and describe the alkenes
15.3 Can understand and describe the arenes
16.1 Can understand and describe the haloalkanes
17 Hydroxy Compounds
17.1 Introduction to hydroxy compounds
18 Carbonyl Compounds
19 Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives
19.1 Carboxylic acid
19.2 Acyl chlorides
20 Amines, Amino Acids and Proteins
20.2 Amino acids