Topic 17 Hydroxy Compounds

17 Hydroxy Compounds

17.1 Introduction to hydroxy compounds

Candidates should be able to:

(a) write the general formula for hydroxy compounds;

(b) name hydroxy compounds according to the IUPAC nomenclature;

(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in hydroxy compounds;

(d) state the physical properties of hydroxy compounds.

17.2 Alcohols

Candidates should be able to:

(a) classify alcohols into primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol; lucas reagent,

(b) classify the reactions of alcohols whereby the ROH bond is broken: the formation of an alkoxide with sodium, esterification, acylation, oxidation to carbonyl compounds and carboxylic acids;

(c) classify the reactions of alcohols whereby the ROH is broken and OH is replaced by other groups: the formation of haloalkanes and the dehydration to alkenes and ethers;

(d) explain the relative reactivity of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols as exemplified by the reaction rate of such alcohols to give haloalkanes, and the reaction products of KMnO4/ K2Cr2O7 oxidation in the presence of sulphuric acid;

(e) explain the reaction of alcohol with the structure CH3CH(OH) with alkaline aqueous solution of iodine to form triiodomethane;

(f) describe the laboratory and industrial preparation of alcohol as exemplified by ethanol from the hydration of ethane;

(g) describe the synthesis of ethanol by fermentation process;

(h) state the uses of alcohols as antiseptic, solvent and fuel.

17.3 Phenols

Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the relative acidity of water, phenol and ethanol with particular reference to the inductive and resonance effects;

(b) describe the reactions of phenol with sodium hydroxide, sodium, acyl chlorides and electrophilic substitution in the benzene ring;

(c) describe the use of bromine water and aqueous iron(III) chloride as tests for phenol;

(d) describe the cumene process in the manufacture of phenol;

(e) explain the use of phenol in the manufacture of cyclohexanol, and hence, nylon-6,6.

17 Hydroxy Compounds

17.1 Introduction to hydroxy compounds

Candidates should be able to:

(a) write the general formula for hydroxy compounds;

(b) name hydroxy compounds according to the IUPAC nomenclature;

(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in hydroxy compounds;

(d) state the physical properties of hydroxy compounds.

17.2 Alcohols

Candidates should be able to:

(a) classify alcohols into primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol; lucas test,

Quiz Reagents & Reaction Conditions 

(b) classify the reactions of alcohols whereby the ROH bond is broken:

the formation of an alkoxide with sodium, esterification, acylation, oxidation to carbonyl compounds and carboxylic acids;

formation of an alkoxide with sodium,

esterification,

 

acylation,

oxidation to carbonyl compounds and

carboxylic acids;

(c) classify the reactions of alcohols whereby the ROH is broken and OH is replaced by other groups:

the formation of haloalkanes and the

dehydration to alkenes and ethers;

(d) explain the relative reactivity of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols as exemplified by the reaction rate of such alcohols to give haloalkanes, and the reaction products of KMnO4/ K2Cr2O7 oxidation in the presence of sulphuric acid;

reaction rate of such alcohols to give haloalkanes
reaction products of KMnO4/ K2Cr2O7 oxidation in the presence of sulphuric acid

(e) explain the reaction of alcohol with the structure CH3CH(OH) with alkaline aqueous solution of iodine to form triiodomethane;

(f) describe the laboratory and industrial preparation of alcohol as exemplified by ethanol from the hydration of ethane;

 

(g) describe the synthesis of ethanol by fermentation process;

(h) state the uses of alcohols as antiseptic, solvent and fuel.

17.3 Phenols

Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the relative acidity of water, phenol and ethanol with particular reference to the inductive and resonance effects;

(b) describe the reactions of phenol with sodium hydroxide, sodium, acyl chlorides and electrophilic substitution in the benzene ring;

(c) describe the use of bromine water and aqueous iron(III) chloride as tests for phenol;

(d) describe the cumene process in the manufacture of phenol;

(e) explain the use of phenol in the manufacture of cyclohexanol, and hence, nylon-6,6.

 

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